Hydraulic pumps convert mechanical force and motion into hydraulic fluid power. Hydraulic pumps are tailored to specific applications, and show great diversity in design. No matter what the design, however, all hydraulic pumps are designed to be used with fluids of certain viscosity. Changes in the fluid viscosity will result in altered performance, often lower efficiency. Most pumps are also damaged by any solid particles in the hydraulic fluid, and therefore require a filtration system.
Hydraulic pumps are one of the most important components in an assortment of construction, manufacturing and machining equipment. They are responsible for a machine’s precision as well as its efficiency, and any small defects can affect the performance of the entire system. A wide range of materials are used in hydraulic pumps to minimize wear and provide dependable performance. The types of material used depend on the pressures and temperatures that the hydraulic system will encounter. Less-expensive, low-pressure pumps are acceptable solutions to applications that require minimal pressures, but should not be considered for heavy industrial operations.
Fill the pump with fluid before installing.
Check the direction of rotation. Direction of rotation is as viewed from pump’s drive shaft end.
The lines should be free from sharp bends, dirt, scale, sand, etc. or other restrictions which would cause resistance to flow.
Welded pipes in particular should be picked or flushed out.
For first run of the pump gradually increase pressure and speed until operating levels are obtained.
Pay close attention to the specifications, especially speed, pressures and suction vacuum.
Shaft seal
Standard Global Gear Pumps are fitted with Nitrile seals. Viton seals are offered as an option for applications with high operating temperatures. Cover shaft seal while spraying or brush-painting the equipment.
Most of the premature failures of gear pumps are due to contaminated fluid.
Periodic checks
Keep outside surface of the pump clean, especially area near to the drive shaft seal. Contact of abrasive powder with shaft seal will cause faster wear of the seal and will lead to leakage. Replace filters regularly in order to keep hydraulic fluid clean. Monitor oil level and replenish oil if necessary.
One of the most important characteristic to consider when choosing a fluid to be used in a hydraulic system is viscosity. Viscosity choice is always a compromise. The fluid must be thin enough to flow easily but thick enough to seal and maintain a lubricating film between bearing and sealing surfaces. Premium grade petroleum based hydraulic fluids will provide the best performance in hydraulic components.
Viscosity and Temperature
Fluid temperature affects viscosity. In general, as the fluid warms it gets thinner and its viscosity decreases. The opposite is true when fluid cools. When choosing a fluid, it is important to consider the start-up and operating temperatures of the hydraulic system. Generally, the fluid is thick when the hydraulic system is started. With movement, the fluid warms to a point where a cooling system begins to operate. From then on, the fluid is maintained at the temperature for which the hydraulic system was designed. In actual applications this sequence varies; hydraulic systems are used in many environments from very cold to very hot. Cooling systems also vary from very elaborate to very simple, so ambient temperature may affect operating temperature. Fluids too thick to flow in cold weather start-ups will cause pump cavitation and possible damage.
Cleanliness of the fluid in a hydraulic system is extremely important. Natural color of the fluid can change in case there is a problem of overheating or water contamination. Proper checking of filter from time to time should be performed as choking of filter can cause overheating of the system.
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